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Response surface optimization of baking parameters for improved quality loaf with local content in a developing economy


Polycarp E. Chigbu and Eugene C. Ukaegbu

JOURNAL: Journal of Nigerian Statistical Association Vol.31 2019
YEAR: 2019


This study borders on the optimum combination of imported wheat flour and local cassava flour for bread making at optimal baking time and temperature. The aim is to increase local content in bread production in a developing economy –Nigeria, while attaining acceptable quality bread loaf using response surface methodology. The three factors under consideration are Baking time, X1 (in minutes), Baking temperature, X2 (in degree Celsius) and Wheat/Cassava mix concentration, X3 (in percentage). Three important qualities of baked loaf to be monitored are moisture content, Y1 (in percentage), volume of loaf, Y2 (in cm3) and plastic limit, Y3 (in cm). Different variations of central composite design (CCD) involving the different axial distances and partial replications of the cube and star portions were evaluated using fraction of design space graphs. This is to identify, among the numerous design options, the design that gives the best spread of minimum variance of prediction of responses throughout the design region. CCD with cuboidal axial distance and with the star portion replicated twice was selected and laboratory results, analyzed using Design Expert 12, gave optimal values of the baking factors and responses.


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